Gottlieb Daimler patented forced induction by using a gear-driven pump to force air into an internal combustion engine in 1885. Swiss engineer Alfred Büchi (1879 - 1959) invented the turbocharger and received a patern in 1905.
Artwork: One of Alfred Büchi's turbocharger designs from the late 1920s (the patent was filed in 1927 and granted in April 1934). I've colored it so you can make sense of it quickly. You can see a single cylinder (yellow) and piston, crank, and connecting rod (red) on the left. Exhaust gas from the cylinder feeds around a pipe (green) that drives a turbine. This is connected to the orange "charging blower" (compressor) and cooler (blue box) that pushes air into the cylinder through the blue pipe. There are various other intricate bits and pieces, but I won't go into all the details; if you're interested, take a look at US Patent #1,955,620: Internal combustion engine (served via Google Patents).
Artwork courtesy of US Patent and Trademark